Machine-washable - A Term Denoting That A Textile Article Can Be Washed In A Domestic Washing Machine To Remove Dirt And Other Extraneous Substances Using An Aqueous Detergent Solution At Elevated Temperatures.
Madapolam - A Bleached Or Dyed Plain Cotton Fabric With A Soft Finish In Any Of A Wide Range Of Qualities Used For Ladies Wear.
Madras - A lightweight plain weave cotton fabric with a striped, plaid, or checked pattern. A true madras will bleed when washed. This type of fabric is usually imported from India. End-uses are men's and women's shirts and dresses.
Madras Plaid - Bright Multicolored Plaids Characteristic Of Indian Madras.
Maline - A Fine Hexagonal Open Mesh Net Similar To Tulle. Used For Veils Millinery Trim.
Mandeel - A Kind Of Decoratively Worn Turban.
Mangle - A Machine Whose Purpose Is To Express Liquid From Moving Textiles By Passage Through A Nip. The Textile May Be In Rope Form Or In Open Width, And The Mangle May Consist Of Two Or More Rollers (bowls) Running In Contact.
Manila - Abaca.
Man-made Fiber - A Fiber Manufactured By Man As Distinct From A Fiber That Occurs Naturally.
Mantua, Also Manteau - Widespread Female Dress Of The Late 17th Century. Developed From A T-shaped Garment, Which Is First Pleated Informally At The Shoulders And The Waist Pleats Are Controlled By A Belt. Instead Of Cutting The Bodice And Skirt As Separate Pieces That Were Sewn Together, Bodice And Skirt Were Cut In One Length From Shoulder To Hem. Cut To Fall Full In Back And Front, The Garment Was Worn Over A Corset And An Underskirt. Front Skirt Edges Were Often Pulled To The Back And Fastened To Form A Draped Effect, The So-called Waterfall-backdrape.
Marabou - A thrown silk usually dyed in the gum or a fabric made of this silk.
Marl - To Run Together And Draft Into One, Two Slubbings Or Rovings Of Different Color Or Lustre.
Marl Effect Yarn - Two Single, Continuous-filament Yarns, Of Different Solid Colors Or Dyeing Properties (subsequently Dyed) Doubled Together., Also Termed Ingrain (filament Yarn)
Marl Yarn - A Yarn Consisting Of Two Woollen-spun Single Ends Of Different Colors Twisted Together.
Marled - Yarns Made Up Of 2 Different Colors, Produced By Combining Fiber Strands (rovings) Of 2 Different Colors, Or Twisting Together 2 Yarns Of Different Colors, Or By Cross Dyeing Plied Yarns Of 2 Different Fibers.
Marocain - A Woven Crepe Fabric With A Wavy Rib Effect In The Weft Resulting From The Use Of High Twist Yarns. Used In Women's Dresses, Suits.
Marquisette - Fine Lightweight Open Mesh Fabric. Used For Curtains, Mosquito Netting, Trim For Evening Wear, Or Millinery.
Mashru - A Fabric Woven Of Silk And Cotton, The Warp Of One Material And The Weft Of The Other. Literally, 'that Which Is In Accordance With The Shara, Muslim Holy Law, Which Disapproves Of An Arel Made Of Silk.
Mask - Theatrical Accessory In Ancient Times, It Was Adopted In The 16th And 17th Century By Women, To Protect The Wearer's Complexion And Preserve Her Incognito. See Also Vizor.
Mass Stress - A Term That Has Been Superseded By Specific Stress.
Mass-colored - Descriptive Of Man-made Fibers In Which Coloring Matter (e.g., Dye Or Pigment) Has Been Incorporated Before The Filament Is Formed.
Mass-pigmented - Descriptive Of A Form Of Mass-coloration In Which A Pigment Is Used
Matchings - Wool That Has Been Sorted.
Matelassé - A medium to heavyweight luxury fabric made in a double cloth construction to create a blistered or quilted surface. Common end-uses are upholstery, draperies, and evening dresses.
Matte - Lacks luster or gloss and has a usually smooth even surface free from shine or highlights.
Matte Jersey - Lightweight rayon blended fabric with a soft feel and subtle crepey texture. It's great for travel since it does not wrinkle, packs well and offers comfort and ease.
Mature Cotton - Cotton Whose Fiber Wall Has Thickened To An Acceptable Degree., See Also Immature Cotton, Motes
Maturity - An Important Cotton Fiber Characteristic Which Expresses The Relative Degree Of Thickening Of Wall. It Is Sometimes Defined As The Ratio Of The Cross-sectional Area Of The Fiber Wall To The Area Of A Circle Having The Same Perimeter As That Of The Fiber, Or The Ratio Of The Average Wall Thickness To The Radius Of The Circle Having The Same Perimeter As That Of The Fiber. However, In Practice, Measurement Of The Degree Of Wall Thickening Is Seldom Carried Out And The Average Maturity Of A Given Sample Of Cotton Is Estimated By One Or More Of Several Indirect Tests Which Are Often Used To Discover The Proportion Of Fibers Having A Maturity Greater Than Some Selected Level.
Mauritius Hemp - A Fiber From The Leaf Of The Plant Furcraea Gigantea., Also Termed Mauritius Fiber, See Also Fiber Types
Mechanical Stretch - Fabrics That Have Stretch Properties But No Not Use Spandex Or Other Stretch Yarns. The Stretch Is Usually Created In The Finishing Process.
Mechlen Lace - A Bobbin Lace Characterized By Delicate Florals Outlined With A Silky Thread.
Medulla - The Central Portion Of Some Animal Fibers Consisting Of A Series Of Cavities Formed By The Medullary Cells Which Collapse During The Growth Process. In Some Fibers E.g., Wool And Kemp, The Medulla Forms The Greatest Portion Of The Fiber And Is Surrounded By A Comparatively Thin Layer Of Cortex.
Melange / Heather - A Variation In Tone Or Mottled Look . May Be Done By Mixing Fibers Or Yarn Of Different Colors Together, Printing Of The Top Before Spinning The Yarn, Or Cross Dyeing The Fabric.
Melt Blowing - A Process In Which A Polymer Is Melt-extruded Through A Die Into A High-velocity Stream Of Hot Air, Which Converts It Into Fine And Relatively Short Fibers. After Quenching By A Cold Air Stream, The Fibers Are Collected As A Sheet On A Moving Screen.
Melt Fracture - An Unstable Melt-spinning Condition In Which The Surface Of The Extrudate Becomes Rough And Irregular.
Melt Spinning - Conversion Of A Molten Polymer Into Filaments By Extrusion And Subsequent Cooling Of The Extrudate.
Melton - A heavyweight, dense, compacted, and tightly woven wool or wool blend fabric used mainly for coats.
Melt-spun - Descriptive Of Man-made Filaments Produced By Melt-spinning.
Membrane - A thin, soft material made from a polymer which is laminated to the fabric to provide properties such as strength, water-proofing or wind-proofing to enhance the fabric's performance.
Mercerization - A process of treating a cotton yarn or fabric, in which the fabric or yarn is immersed in a caustic soda solution and later neutralized in acid. The process causes a permanent swelling of the fiber, resulting in an increased luster on the surface of the fabric, an increased affinity for dyes, and increased strength.
Merchant Converter - An Individual Who Or An Organization Which Locates A Supplier And Purchases Grey Fabric, Procures Its Finishing And Then Re-sells The Finished Fabric To Customers.
Merino - A type of wool that originates from pure-bred Merino sheep. The best Merino wool comes from Italy.
Mesh - A type of fabric characterized by its net-like open appearance, and the spaces between the yarns. Mesh is available in a variety of constructions including wovens, knits, laces, or crocheted fabrics.
Mesta - Kenaf.
Metachrome Process - A Single-bath Method Of Dyeing In Which The Fiber Is Treated In A Dyebath Containing A Suitable Chrome Dye Together With A Chromate, Whereby A Dye-chromium Complex Is Formed Within The Fiber.
Metal - A Term Used To Describe Fibers Made From Any Metal.
Metallic - An inorganic fiber made from minerals and metals, blended and extruded to form fibers. The fiber is formed from a flat ribbon of metal, coated with a protective layer of plastic, which reduces tarnishing. Metal used in apparel fabric is purely decorative.
Metallic Fiber - An inorganic fiber made from minerals and metals, blended and extruded to form fibers. The fiber is formed from a flat ribbon of metal, coated with a protective layer of plastic, which reduces tarnishing. Metal used in apparel fabric is purely decorative.
Metallized Yarn - A Yam Which Has Free Metal As A Component., Note: There Are Several Types, The Best Known Of Which Are:, , (2) Metal Of Narrow Strip Section, Usually Lustrous. The Metal May Be Coated With Film Such As Viscose Cellulose Ethanoate (acetate), Butanoate (butyrate), Or Polyester. The Film May Be Colored. , (3) Yarns On Which Metal Is Deposited, E.g., Chemically Or By Electric Arc, Or By Adhesive,, (4) Multi-end Yams In Which At Least One Single Yarn Is Metallic, (cf. Tinsel Yarn.), (5) A Gimp In Which The Helical Covering Consists Of A Metallic Or Laminated Strip.
Metameric - Descriptive Of Objects That Exhibit Metamerism.
Metamerism - A Phenomenon Whereby The Nature Of The Color Difference Between Two Similarly Colored Objects, Changes With Change In The Spectral Distribution (characteristics) Of The Illuminant., Note 1: Metamerism Is Most Frequently Seen When Two Colored Objects Match In Daylight, But Differ Markedly In Color When Viewed In Tungsten-filament Light. This Arises Because The Visible Absorption Spectra Of The Two Objects Differ Significantly, Although The Tristimulus Values In Daylight Are Identical., Note 2: This Term Is Often Used Loosely To Describe The Behavior Of A Single Colored Object That Shows A Marked Change Of Color As The Illuminant Changes. Use Of This Term In This Way Is Incorrect: This Effect Should Be Described As Lack Of Color Constancy.
Metier - The Bank Of Cells Or Compartments Used In The Dry-spinning Of Cellulose Ethanoate (cellulose Acetate)
Micro Fiber - Generic term for any synthetic fiber finer than silk. Fabrics made with micro fibers are soft, lightweight, breathable and durable.
Microclimate - The temperature and humidity of the space between your skin and the base layer of clothing.
Micro-encapsulation - A method of enclosing polymer additive materials in microscopic capsules, which can then be released under certain conditions to enhance performance properties.
Microfiber - Extremely fine, tightly woven fiber that combines natural breathability with wind and water resistance. Microfiber fabrics are used in performance outerwear, and are often laminated to waterproof/breathable fabrics or treated with waterproof/breathable coatings.
Microfibers - The name given to ultra-fine manufactured fibers and the name given to the technology of developing these fibers. Fibers made using microfiber technology, produce fibers which weigh less than 1.0 denier. The fabrics made from these extra-fine fibers provide a superior hand, a gentle drape, and incredible softness. Comparatively, microfibers are two times finer than silk, three times finer than cotton, eight times finer than wool, and one hundred times finer than a human hair. Currently, there are four types of microfibers being produced. These include acrylic microfibers, nylon microfibers, polyester microfibers, and rayon microfibers.
Microfleece - Microfleece is velvety soft, loose-fitting and luxuriously comfortable, but it works best when coupled with a lightweight or midweight layer beneath it. Microfleece is often billed as a base layer, but due to its tight plush knit, microfleece doesn't wick, and in all but extremely cold weather it's just too hot to use as a base layer.
Micromattique - Brand Of Polyester Microfiber Trademarked By Du Pont.
Micronaire Value - Measurement Of Cotton Fiber Quality Which Is A Reflection Of Both Fineness And Maturity. Low Values Indicate Fine And/or Immature Fibers; High Values Indicate Coarse And/or Mature Fibers. Micronaire Value Is Determined In Practice By Measuring The Air Permeability Of A Specified Plug Of Cotton Fibers.
Microporous - Describes a coated or laminated fabric that breathes through microscopic pores left during the application process.
Middle Weight - These fabrics have a tighter weave than lightweight fabrics for a combination of warmth and wicking ability.
Milanese - A Warp Knit Process Resulting In A Fabric With A Fine Rib On The Face And A Diamond Effect On The Back. Used For Women's Lingerie And Other Apparel.
Mildew - A Superficial Growth Of Certain Species Of Fungi., Note: On Textile Materials, This May Lead To Discoloration, Tendering, And Variation In Properties.
Milled / Fulled - A Method Of Compressing , Shrinking And Felting A Fabric Through The Use Of Moisture Heat And Mechanical Pressure. Usually Done On Wool And Wool Blends Such As Melton. The Process Often Obscure The Weave.
Milling - The Process Of Consolidating Or Compacting Woven Or Knitted Fabrics That Usually, Although Not Exclusively Contain Wool., Note., The Treatment, Which Is Usually Given In A Cylinder Milling Machine Or In Milling Stocks, Produces Relative Motion Between The Fibers Of A Fabric. That Have Been Wetted Out And Swollen With A Liquid Of Suitable pH. Depending On The Type Of Fiber And Structure Of The Fabric And On Variations In The Conditions Of Milling, A Wide Range Of Effects Can Be Obtained Varying From A Slight Alteration In Handle To A Dense Matting With Considerable Reduction In Area.
Millitex - A Unit Of The Tex System
Mini Check - A Very Small Pattern Of Squares Or Rectangles . May Be Yarn Dyed, Printed, Or Woven Into The Fabric.
Minimum-care - Drip-dry
Mirzai - A Kind Of Jacket, Often Understood As A 'quilted Coat'. It Was Generally Worn Sleeveless Over A Shirt As Outer Garment; Worn Sometimes Also Next To The Skin, Without Anything Underneath It.
Mock Leno - A Woven Fabric Made On A Dobby Loom With An Open Mesh Design That Simulates A Leno Weave By Interlacing And Grouping The Warp And Weft Yarns With Spaces Between The Groups. Warp Yarns Are Not Paired As In A True Leno Weave.
Modacrylic Fiber - A manufactured fiber similar to acrylic in characteristics and end-uses. Modacrylics have a higher resistance to chemicals and combustion than acrylic, but also have a lower safe ironing temperature and a higher specific gravity than acrylic.
Modal - A type of rayon. It has a soft hand and drape, and a subtle sheen.
Modeste - French Word For The Outer Layer Of A Skirt. The Underlayer Was Called Secrète.
Mohair - Hair fibers from the Angora goat. End-uses include sweaters, coats, suits, and scarves.
Mohair Braid - Any Type Of Braid Made From Mohair Yams.
Moiré / Watermarked - A Ribbed Or Corded Fabric That Has Been Subjected To Heat And Heavy Pressure By Rollers After Weaving So As To Present A Rippled Appearance. The Effect Arises From Differences In Reflection Of The Flattened And The Unaffected Parts. This Type Of Fabric Is Also Correctly Described As Watered
Moisture Content, Percentage - The Weight Of Moisture In A Material Expressed As A Percentage Of The Total Weight
Moisture Regain - The amount of water a completely dry fiber will absorb from the air at a standard condition of 70 degrees F and a relative humidity of 65%. Expressed as a % of the dry fiber weight.
Moisture Transport - The movement of water from one side of a fabric to the other, caused by capillary action, wicking, chemical or electrostatic action.
Moity Wool - A Term Used Mainly In The Uk, For Wool Containing Vegetable Matter (straw, Hay, Twigs, Etc.,) Picked Up By Sheep During Grazing.
Molar Mass - The Average Of The Sum Of The Atomic Weights Of The Atoms Present In The Chains Of Macromolecules In A Polymer. This Average Will In General Depend Upon The Basis On Which Calculated, And This Should Be Stated, E.g., It May Be Based On A Number Average Or A Mass Average
Moleskin - Microfiber, it's a terrific fabric to travel with. It resists wrinkling and has a beautiful sueded look on the face. The reverse has a satiny look and feel. Generally, will contain 2-4% spandex. Great for pants, jackets and heavy shirts.
Molten-metal Dyeing Process - A Method Of Continuous Dyeing In Which Material Is Impregnated With An Aqueous Liquid Dye And Chemicals And Then Passed Through A Bath Of Liquid Low-melting Alloy Usually Below 100 °c
Momme - A Japanese Measurement Of Mass Equivalent To 3.76g (approximately). It Is Used To Indicate The Weight Per Unit Area Of Silk Fabric, This Being Expressed As The Weight In Momme Of A Length Of Degummed Fabric 22.8 M In Length And 3.8 Cm In Width., Note: The Length Measurements Used Are Standard Units Of Length In The Japanese Silk Industry.
Monk's Cloth - A heavy weight cotton fabric utilizing the basket weave variation of the plain weave. Used for draperies and slip covers, monk's cloth is an example of 4 x 4 basket weave. It has poor dimensional stability and tends to snag.
Monofilament - A single filament of a manufactured fiber, usually made in a denier higher than 14. Monofilaments are usually spun singularly, rather than extruded as a group of filaments through a spinneret and spun into a yarn. End-uses include hosiery and sewing thread.
Monofilament Yarn - A Yam Composed Of One Filaments That Run Essentially The Whole Length Of The Yarn. Yams Of More Than One Filament Are Usually Referred To As Multifilament .
Monomer - A Small, Simple, Chemical Compound From Which A Polymer Is Formed., Note: In Most Cases A Given Polymer Can Be Made From A Variety Of Alternative Monomers. In Some Cases Two Or More Different Monomers Are Involved In The Production Of A Polymer.
Monotone - Refers To A Design In One Color.
Moquette - A Firm Double Woven Pile Fabric Used Mainly For Upholstery . Pile May Be Cut , Uncut Or Partially Cut.
Mordant - A Substance, Usually A Metallic Compound, Applied To A Substrate To Form A Complex With A Dye, Which Is Retained By The Substrate More Firmly Than The Dye Itself.
Mordant Dye -A Dye That Is Fixed With A Mordant
Moshla - A Cap, Worn Usually By Children, Covering, Apart From The Back, The Back Of The Neck Through A Long, Suspended Flap.
Moss Crepe / Pebble Crepe - A Woven Fabric With A Characteristic Grainy Surface And Often A Spongy Hand. Generally Made With High Twist Yarn In A Crepe Weave. Used In Women's Suits, Dresses Etc.
Mossed - 1. A Finish Usually Applied To Synthetics Which Gives The Fabric Surface An Irregular, Mottled Appearance . 2. A Fibrous Texture On The Surface Of Felted Woolen Fabrics.
Motes - There Are Two Broad Categories, (a) Fuzzy Motes, The Largest Of This Type Of Mote Consists Of Whole Aborted Or Immature Seed With Fuzz Fibers And Sometimes Also With Very Short Lint Fibers, The Development Of Which Has Ceased At A Very Early Stage. Small Fuzzy Motes Originate As Either Undeveloped Or Fully Grown Seeds, Which Are Broken In Ginning And Disintegrate Still Further In The Opening, Cleaning And Carding Processes., (b) Bearded Needles. A Piece Of Seed Coat With Fairy Long Lint Fibers Attached., Note 1: Both Classes Of Mote Become Entangled With The Lint Cotton And, When They Are Present In Quantity, Their Complete Elimination Is Impossible Except By Combing., Note 2: Fuzzy And Bearded Motes Carrying Only A Small Piece Of Barely Visible Seed-coat Are Frequently Termed Seed-coat Neps.
Mottle - Marl.
Mouches - French Word For Small Black Patches Worn On The Face To Hide Little Blemishes. They Came Into Fashion In The Second Half Of The 17th Century And Developed Far Into The 18th Century A Language Of Its Own, Where They Were Exaggeratedly Used Even By Men And Available In Diverse Shapes.
Mousseline - General Term For Crisp, Lightweight, Semi-opaque Fabrics . May Be Made From A Variety Of Fibers.
Muff - Round Band Of Fur Or Fur Lined Cloth To Protect The Hands From The Cold.
Muga - Wild Silk
Mughlai Pyjama - A Pyjama (q. V.) Of The 'mughal' Cut.
Mull - Soft, Thin, Plain Weave Fabric Usually Of Cotton Or Silk.
Multi-filament Yarn - A Yam Composed Of Filaments That Run Essentially The Whole Length Of The Yarn. Yams Of One Filament Are Usually Referred To As Monofilament.
Multilobal - Descriptive Of A Fiber Or Filament Whose Cross-section Resembles A Polygon But Has Concave Sides And Rounded Vertices (lobes)., Note: The Prefixes Tri- (3), Penta- (5), Hexa- (6), Octa- (8), Etc., Are Used With The Suffix -lobal To Indicate The Number Of Lobes.
Munga - Wild Silk
Mungo - The Fibrous Material Made In The Woollen Trade By Pulling Down New Or Old Hard-woven Or Milled Fabric Or Felt In Rag Form
Muslin - An inexpensive, medium weight, plain weave, low count (less than 160 threads per square inch) cotton sheeting fabric. In its unfinished form, it is commonly used in fashion design to make trial garments for preliminary fit.
Mutton Cloth - A Plain-knitted Fabric Of Loose Texture, Usually Cotton, Made On A Multi-feeder Circular-knitting Machine.
MVT - Moisture Vapor Transfer. The terms used to quantify how much vapor a fabric can transfer from one side to the other.