Tackspun Fabric - A Material Made From A Polymer Film With A Backing Substrate. The Film Is Melted By A Roller To Which It Adheres, Drawing Up A Fibrous Pile.
Tactel Brand - A Du Pont Brand Of Filament Nylon Fiber.
Taffet - A smooth, crisp fabric that can be made of a variety of yarns or fibers. Taffeta has become a versatile material that can be worn for day or evening, and is used in both apparel and accessories.
Taffeta - A lustrous, medium weight, plain weave fabric with a slight ribbed appearance in the filling (crosswise) direction. For formal wear, taffeta is a favorite choice. It provides a crisp hand, with lots of body. Silk taffeta gives the ultimate rustle, but other fibers are also good choices.
Tag Wool - The First Clip From A Sheep Not Shorn As A Lamb.
Tahband - A Kind Of Girdle Or Belt.
Takauchiya - A Kind Pyjama (q.v.). Abu'i-fazl Describes It In The Ain-i-akbati As "a Coat Without Lining, Of The Indian Form. Formerly It Had Slits In The Skirt, And Was Tied On The Left Side; His Majesty Has Ordered It To Be Made With A Round Skirt And To Be Tied On The Right Side."
Tanis - Tie-cords Or Strings Used To Fasten Or Tighten A Garment When Worn.
Tape - Fabric sewn to a garment at the front edges, armholes, shoulder, neck, sideseams, vents, bottoms, gorge seams, etc. It is usually designed to prevent distortion of a fabric edge or seam.
Tape Yarn - A Yarn Which Comprises A Tape With A Large Width-to-thickness Ratio, And Which Has An Apparent Width Not Exceeding An Agreed Limit (e.g., 5mm Or 8mm). Note: Such Yarns Are Usually Of Paper Or Are Formed By Slitting A Wide Film Of (usually) Polyethylene Or Polypropylene Polymer Into Individual Tapes, With Hot-stretching Either Before Or After Slitting To Induce High Longitudinal Strength. The Draw Ratio In Hot-stretching Is Kept Low Enough To Avoid Excessive Longitudinal Fibrillation. The Tape Yarn So Produced Is Suitable For Weaving.
Tape, Oriented - A Tape Made By Extruding A Thermoplastic Polymer, Usually A Polyolefin, In The Form Of A Sheet Or Film, Slitting The Sheet Into Tapes And Hot-stretching To Induce Molecular Orientation And Hence High Longitudinal Strength.
Taper - To Decrease Width Gradually And Bring It To An End Point.
Taper Line Gratings - Transparent Plates Containing Lines More Widely Spaced At One End Than The Other. By Selecting The Appropriate Taper Line Grating And Placing It Parallel To A Set Of Threads In A Woven Fabric, It Is Possible To Ascertain The Number Of Threads Per Unit Length (cm Or Inch) As A Result Of A Star Form Created. These Gratings Can Also Be Used To Determine The Number Of Courses Per Unit Length In Weft-knitted Fabrics, Or The Number Of Dents Per Unit Length In A Reed.
Tapestry - A Closely Woven Figured Fabric Of Compound Structure In Which A Pattern Is Developed By The Use Of Colored Yarns In The Warp Or In The Weft Or Both. A Fine Binder Warp And Weft May Be Incorporated. It Normally Used For Upholstery. Note: Originally The Term Was Applied To Furnishing Fabrics In Which The Design Was Produced By Means Of Colored Threads Inserted By Hand As Required. Modern Tapestry Fabrics Are Woven On Jacquard Looms, Colored Yarns Being Used To Produce The Desired Pattern. There Are Various Fabric Structures In Which Two Or More Warps And Wefts Of Different Materials May Be Used. The Face Of The Fabric Is Usually Of Uniform Texture, The Design Being Developed In Various Colors, But In Some Tapestry Fabrics Figures Of The Brocade Type Formed By Floating Some Of The Threads Are Also To Be Found.
Tapestry - A heavy, often hand-woven, ribbed fabric, featuring an elaborate design depicting a historical or current pictorial display. The weft-faced fabric design is made by using colored filling yarns, only in areas where needed, that are worked back and forth over spun warp yarns, which are visible on the back. End-uses include wall hangings and upholstery.
Tartan - Refers To The Kinds Of Plaid Patterns Traditionally Worn By Scottish Highlanders . Each Design Was Associated With A Specific Family Or "clan". The Term Is Generally Used To Today In Reference To Any Plaid Design Similar To These Scottish Designs.
Taslan - A Du Pont Trademark For A Method Of Bulking And Texturizing Yarn Using Compressed Air.
Tasteless - The Basques Of Early 17th Century Doublets.
Tattersall - A Simple Overcheck Design, Usually A Thin Check Of One Or 2 Colors On A Contrasting Color Ground.
Tear - The Ratio Of Top To Noil Produced In Combing.
Tear Strength - The force necessary to tear a fabric, measured by the force necessary to start or continue a tear in a fabric. Expressed in pounds or in grams, the most commonly used method for determining the tear strength is the Elmendorf tear test procedure.
Teazle / Teazel / Teasel - The Dried Seed-head Of The Plant Dipsacus Fullonum (fullers Thistle) Used To Raise A Pile Or Nap On Certain Fabrics. The Machine Used For This Purpose Is Known As A Teazle Gig.
Teentah Topi - A Topi (q.v.) Consisting Of Three Different Pieces, Stitched Together.
Teflon - A Water Repellent, Stain Resistant Finish Applied To Fabric . Trademark Of Du Pont Co.
Temporary Set - The Process Of Conferring Temporary Stability Of Form Upon Fibers, Yarns, Or Fabrics, Usually By Means Of Successive Heating And Cooling In Moist Or Dry Conditions.
Tenacity - Breaking Stress.
Tencel - Created from wood pulp, Tencel is very soft with great drape. It's usually a medium weight fabric that suitable for pants, skirts and jackets.
Tencel Brand - Acordis Co.'s Brand Of Lyocell Cellulosic Fiber.
Tensile Strength (Breaking Stregth) - The strength shown by a fiber, yarn, or fabric to resist breaking under pressure. It is the actual number of pounds of resistance that a fabric will give before the material is broken on the testing machine.
Tensile Test - A Test In Which The Resistance Of A Material To Stretching In One Direction Is Measured
Tension Control Weave - A type of decorative weave, characterized by a puckered effect which occurs because the tension in the warp yarns is intentionally varied before the filling yarns are placed in the fabric.
Terry - A Fabric With Uncut Loops On One Or Both Sides . May Be Woven Or Knit. Used For Toweling, Robes. Knit Versions Such As French Terry Have Loops On One Side And Are Sometimes Brushed To Produce A Fleece.
Terry Cloth - A typical uncut pile weave fabric. This fabric is formed by using two sets of warp yarns. One set of warp yarns is under very little tension; when the filling yarns are packed into place, these loose yarns are pushed backward along with the filling yarns, and loops are formed. Typical uses include towels, robes, and apparel.
Terry Velour - A pile weave cotton fabric with an uncut pile on one side and a cut pile on the reverse side. Terry velour is valued for its soft, luxurious hand. Typical uses include towels, robes, and apparel.
Tex - The Basic Unit Of The Tex System. Tex Is A Recognized Si Unit.
Tex System - A System Of Expressing Linear Density (mass Per Unit Length) Of Fibers, Filaments, Slivers, And Yarns, Or Other Linear Textile Material. The Basic Unit Is The Tex, Which Is The Mass In Grams Of One Kilometre Of The Product. Multiples And Sub-multiples Recommended For Use In Preference To Other Possible Combinations Are: kilogram Per Kilometre, Designated Kilotex (ktex); Decigram Per Kilometre, Designated Decitex (dtex);and Milligram Per Kilometre, Designated Millitex (mtex).
Textile - Originally A Woven Fabric But The Term Is Now Applied To Fibers, Filaments, Or Yarns, Natural Man-made, And Products Obtained From Them. Note: For Example, Threads, Cords, Ropes, Braids, Lace, Embroidery, Nets, And Fabrics Made By Weaving, Knitting, Felting, Bonding, And Tufting Are Textiles. Used As An Adjective, Descriptive Of Fibrous Or Filamentous Manufactures And Of The Raw Materials, Processes, Machines, Buildings, And Personnel Used In The Organizations Connected With, And The Technology Of, Their Manufacture.
Textile Film - A Man-made Textile Material In Film Form Within Which Molecular Orientation Is Predominantly In The Longitudinal Direction. Note: Polymer Films For Non-textile Use Are Commonly Unoriented Or Bi-axially Oriented, But Uni-axial Orientation Is Present In Some Cases.
Textile Glass - The Name Used To Describe Glass Fibers That Are Suitable For Textile Applications.
Textured Yarns - The yarns that result after undegoing the texturizing process, which can create crimping, looping, and otherwise modify the filament yarn for the purpose of increasing cover, abrasion resistance, insulation, warmth resilience, or moisture absorption, and to provide a different surface texture. When filament yarns are texturized, and then woven or knitted into fabrics, the result is that the finished fabric?s properties resemble a fabric that has been made from a spun yarn. Most of today's filament polyester is texturized.
Texturizing - A process performed on specialized machinery which create bulk, stretch to the yarn, and therefore creates new aesthetics to the finished fabric.
Thermal Fabric - A Knit Or Woven Fabric Constructed So As To Trap Warm Air Between The Yarns. Often In A Waffle Or Honeycomb Texture. Used For Blankets. Underwear.
Thermal Insulation - The ability of a fabric to retain heat.
Thermally Bonded Nonwoven Fabric - Textile Fabric Composed Of A Web Or Batt Of Fibers Containing Heat-sensitive Material, Bonded By The Application Of Heat, With Or Without Pressure. The Heat-sensitive Materials May Be In The Form Of Fibers, Bicomponent Fibers Or Powders.
Thermoplastic - Deformable By Applied Heat And Pressure Without Any Accompanying Chemical Change. The Deformation Is Reversible.
Thermoregulation - The ability to maintain a constant temperature independent of dynamic (changing) environmental conditions.
Thick & Thin - A Fabric With A Mottled Appearance, Made From A Filament Yarn With Varying Thickness.
Thickener - A Substance Used To Increase The Viscosity Of A Print Paste Or Other Fluid, In Order To Control Its Flow Properties. Natural Polymers (starch, Alginates, Etc.,), Chemical Modifications Thereof, Synthetic Polymers, Emulsions, Foams And Clays Can Be Used.
Thread - (1) The Result Of Twisting Together In One Or More Operations Two Or More Single, Folded, Or Cabled Yarns (2) A Product As Defined In (1) Intended Particularly For Sewing Purposes. (known Also As Sewing Thread.) (3) A Component Of Silk Yarn. It Is The Product Of Winding Together Without Twist A Number Of Baves. A Three-thread Silk Yarn Is The Result Of Folding Three Such Products Together (4) A Textile Yam In General.
Thread Count - The number of ends and picks per inch in a woven cloth; the number of wales and courses per inch in a knit fabric. See "Count of Cloth".
Throw - A Term, Of Germanic And Anglo-saxon Origin, Used Especially In The Silk And Man-made Fiber Industries To Describe The Twisting Or Folding Of Continuous-filament Yams. Note. The Term Throwster Was Traditionally Used To Describe An Individual Or Company Specifically Involved With These Twisting Processes, But, In More Recent Times, The Title Has Also Been Inherited By Those Who Manufacture Textured Yarns By The False-twist Method.
Tick Weave - Fabric With A Small Allover Pattern Or Texture, Often Using 2 Contrasting Colors.
Ticking - A tightly woven, very durable fabric, usually made of cotton, and used for covering mattresses, box springs, pillows, and work clothes. The fabric can be made by using a plain, satin, or twill weave construction.
Tie Dyed - A Hand Method Of Dyeing That Involves Gathering Small Portions Of The Fabric And Tying Them Tightly Before Dyeing. The Tied Areas Resist Penetration Of The Dye, Resulting In Irregular Patterns. Also Refers To Similar Designs Created By Machine Methods.
Tiki - A Round Piece; Generally Tacked On To A Garment.
Tina Givens - Tina Givens is a multifaceted artist-designer. Her watercolor work is detailed. Not a traditional watercolorist ~ Tina created a saturated, and more opaque method which allows her characters and florals to be injected with personality. Her sense of color is dramatically different and appears so in her fabric designs.
Tinsel Yarn - A Textile Yarn Or Thread, Combined, Coated, Or Covered With A Shiny Substance, Often Metallic (e.g., Aluminium, Occasionally Gold Or Silver), To Produce A Glittering Or Sparkling Effect.
Tippet - From The 16th Century Onwards It Meant A Short Shoulder Cape.
Tippy Wool - Wool In Which The Tip Portions Of The Fibers Have Been So Damaged By Weathering During Growth As To Have Markedly Different Dyeing Properties.
Tissue Faille - A Lightweight, Plain Weave, Filament Yarn Fabric Characterized By A Narrow Crosswise Rib. Used For Blouses And Dresses.
Tone On Tone - 1. A Fabric With A Pattern Consisting Of 2 Or More Shades Of The Same Color. 2. Piece Dyed Dobbies In Which The Dobby Effect Takes On A Different Tone By Virtue Of The Weave, Light Reflection Or Types Of Yarn Used.
Top - (1) Sliver That Forms The Starting Material For The Worsted And Certain Other Drawing Systems, Usually Obtained By The Process Of Combing, And Characterized By The Following Properties: (a) The Absence Of Fibers So Short As To Be Uncontrolled In The Preferred System Of Drawing; (b) A Substantially Parallel Formation Of The Fibers; (c) A Substantially Homogeneous Distribution Throughout The Sliver Of Fibers From Each Length-group Present. Note 1: Tops Are Usually Produced By Carding And Combing, Or By Preparing And Combing On Worsted Machinery, But Recent Years Have Seen The Introduction Of Top-making By The Cutting Or Controlled Breaking Of Continuous-filament Tows Of Man-made Fibers, And The Assembly Of The Resultant Staple Fibers Into Sliver In A Single Machine. Note 2: The Advent Of Man-made Fibers Has Meant The Introduction Of Staple-fiber Top Into The Flax, Jute, Spun Silk, And Other Drawing Systems. (2) The Form Or Package In Which Sliver Is Delivered, E.g., Ball Top Or Bump Top.
Top Dyed - A Fiber Dyeing Method In Which Dye In Applied To Combed Fibers In An Untwisted Or Loosely Twisted Rope Form (called Top Or Sliver ) . Sometimes Dye Is Applied Or Printed On The Fiber At Regular Intervals To Give A Melange Effect . Top Dyeing Results In Good Colorfastness.
Topham Box - A Device For Twisting And Winding A Wet-spun Continuous-filament Yarn So As To Produce A Cake
Torchon Lace - An Inexpensive, Sturdy, Machine Made Lace Using Thick Threads In Simple Designs On A Mesh Ground . Often With Scalloped Edges. Also Called Beggar's Lace.
Tow - A large bundle of manufactured filament fiber as they are extruded from the spinerette, and before they have been cut into staple fibers.
Tow (flax Or Hemp) - Any Substantially Clean Fiber Of Less Than Scutched Length.
Tow (man-made fibers) - An Assemblage Of A Large Number Of Substantially Parallel Filaments With Little Or No Twist.
Tow, Machine - Tow Produced By A Hackling Machine.
Tow, Straw - Flax Straw In Tossed And Broken Condition, Resulting From Threshing A Flax Crop Too Poor For Normal Processing
Tower - High Female Headdress Fashionable In The Late 17th And Early 18th Century.
Tow-to-top - A Process In Which Heavy Continuous-filament Yam, Having No Twist And A Substantially Parallel Alignment Of The Filaments, Is Cut Or Broken Into Staple And Drafted Into A Sliver As A Continuous Process. It Is Characteristic Of The Process That The Tow Does Not Lose Its Form, Although The Filaments Are Broken Down Into Short Lengths, But Is Only Attenuated In The Drafting Process.
Tram - A Silk Weft Yarn Comprising Two Or More Threads Run Together And Then Twisted With 2 Or 4 Turns/cm.
Transfer Printing - Any Process By Which A Design Is Transferred From Paper To Another Substrate. Several Techniques Have Been Used, Viz Melt-transfer, Film-release, And Wet-transfer, But Vapour Transfer (sublimation Transfer) Is The Most Important. Selected Disperse Dyes Transfer In Vapour Form To Thermoplastic Fibers When The Printed Paper And Fabric Are Brought Into Close Contact In A Transfer Press At 170°-220°c.
Trapunto - A Form Of Quilting In Which A Design Is Stitched Through 2 Layers Of Fabric. The Lower Layer Is Than Slit And Batting Or Fiberfill Is Inserted To Raise The Design To A High Relief.
Trash (cotton) - A Loose Term Embracing, In Its Widest Sense, The Non-fibrous Foreign Matter Present In Bales Of Raw Cotton Other Than Abnormal Items, Such As Stone, Timber, Pieces Of Old Iron, Etc. Note 1: Normal Whole Seeds, Either Ginned Or Un-ginned, Are Frequently Excluded From This Category But Broken Portions Of Them And Also Whole Or Broken Undeveloped Seeds Are Usually Regarded As Trash. Note2, The Main Component Of Trash Is Chaff And Dirt In The Form Of Soil Or Sand.
Trend - Fashion Is Not Static, They Are Constantly Moving, Their Movement Has A Definite Direction. The Direction In Which Fashion Moves Is Called Fashion Trend.
Triacetate / Tri-acetate - A manufactured fiber, which like acetate, is made by modifying cellulose. However, even more acetate groups have been added to create this fiber. Triacetate is less absorbent and less sensitive to high temperatures than acetate. It can be hand or machine washed and tumble dried, with relatively good wrinkle recovery.
Tri-blend - Any fabric consisting of a blend of three fibers; frequently cotton/polyester/nylon or polyester/nylon/Lycra.
Tricorne - From French Late 18th Century Term For Hat With Turned Up Brim And Having Three Corners.
Tricot - A Common Warp Knit Fabric With Thin Wales On The Face And Crosswise Ribs On The Back . Generally Made Of Synthetic Yarns Such As Polyester, Nylon, Acetate Or Rayon.
Tricot Knit - A warp knit fabric in which the fabric is formed by interlooping adjacent parallel yarns. The warp beam holds thousands of yards of yarns in a parallel arrangement, and these yarns are fed into the knitting area simultaneously. Sufficient yarns to produce the final fabric width and length are on the beam. Tricot knits are frequently used in women's lingerie items such as slips, bras, panties, and nightgowns.
Tricotine - A Woven Fabric With A Distinct Steep Double Twill Line. Used For Trousers Dresses, Women's Sportswear.
Trim - To Cut Off The Ragged Edges Below The Seam Line To Prevent The Garment From Being Bulky And To Give The Seam A Neat Finish.
Trim-cut - Tapered and tailored, or a form-fitting garment.
Tristimulus Values - The Amounts Of Three Defined Primaries (usually Blue, Red And Green) Required To Be Mixed Additively To Match The Color Of The Object, Under Defined Conditions.
Trivinyl - A Term Used To Describe Fibers Made From A Synthetic Terpolymer Of Cyanoethene (acrylonitrile), A Chlorinated Vinyl Monomer And A Third Vinyl Monomer, None Of Which Represents As Much As 50% Of The Total Mass.
Tropical - A General Term For Crisp Lightweight Suiting Fabrics. They Often Use Fine Or High Twist Yarns For A Porous Construction . May Be A Variety Of Fibers And Weaves . Primarily Used For Warm Weather Suits.
Trousses - In The 17th Century The Upper Hose Which Did Not Hang Down, But Fitted The Thighs Tightly. They Are A Survival Of The 16th Century Grègues, Preserved In The Ceremonial Costume Of Knights Of The King's Order And In Pages' Costumes.
Trunk - Double the length of a coverall, from the center of the neckhole at the back to the point of the leg separation on the seat seam.
Tubular - A Knit Fabric Made On A Circular Knitting Machine And Shipped Without Being Slit To Open Width Form.
Tuck Stitch - A Knit Stitch That Results In Open Spaces At Regular Intervals On The Fabric By Having Some Needles Hold More Than One Loop At A Time.
Tukma - Small, Button-like Boss Used In Conjunction With A Ghundi (q.v.) Or Loop, For Fastening.
Tulle - A lightweight, extremely fine, machine-made netting, it is softer to the touch than netting. Appropriate for veils and costumes.
Turning - The reversing of two or more pieces of material that are seamed together for pressing or topstitching.
Tussah - Silk Fabric Made From The Strong, Coarse, Uneven, Light Brown Color Silk Produced By Wild, Uncultivated Silkworms.
Tussah Silk - A Coarse Silk Produced By A Wild Silkworm. There Are Three Main Types: Antheraea Mylitta (largely Indian), Antheraea Pernyi (largely Chinese), And Antheraea Yama-mai (largely Japanese). It Is Brown In Color And Is Usually Spun, Since Most Cocoons Cannot Be Reeled. Note: The Spelling 'tussah', Although Considered Erroneous By Etymologists, Is In Common Usage In The Textile Industry For The Name Given To Fibers And Filaments.
Tussore - A Fabric Woven From The Coarse Wild Silk Called Tussah. Note: The Spelling 'tussore', Although Considered Erroneous By Etymologists, Is In Common Usage In The Textile Industry For The Name Given To Fabrics.
Twaddell - A Scale Used For The Measurement Of The Specific Gravity Of Liquids By Hydrometry. The Following Formula Expresses The Relationship Between Specific Gravity (sg), And Degrees Twaddell (tw), For Liquids Heavier Than Water:
Tweed - A medium to heavy weight, fluffy, woolen, twill weave fabric containing colored slubbed yarns. Common end-uses include coats and suits.
Twill - One of the three basic weaves, twills are characterized by diagonal warp and filling lines in the fabric. Most twills are at a 45 degree angle.
Twill Weave - A basic weave in which the fabrics are constructed by interlacing warp and filling yarns in a progressive alternation which creates a diagonal effect on the face, or right side, of the fabric. In some twill weave fabrics, the diagonal effect may also be seen clearly on the back side of the fabric.
Twist - A term that applies to the number of turns and the direction that two yarns are turned during the manufacturing process. The yarn twist brings the fibers close together and makes them compact. It helps the fibers adhere to one another, increasing yarn strength. The direction and amount of yarn twist helps determine appearance, performance, durability of both yarns and the subsequent fabric or textile product. Single yarns may be twisted to the right (S twist) or to the left (Z twist). Generally, woolen and worsted yarns are S-twist, while cotton and flax yarns are typically Z-twist. Twist is generally expressed as turns per inch (tpi), turns per meter (tpm), or turns per centimeter (tpc).
Twist Angle - The Angle Between The Path Of A Yarn Element And The Yarn Axis.
Twist Direction - Twist Is Described As 's' Or 'z' According To Which Of These Letters Has Its Centre Inclined In The Same Direction As The Surface Elements Of A Given Twisted Yarn.
Twist Factor / Twist Multiplier - In A Yarn, The Product Of Twist Level And The Square Root Of The Linear Density. Note: Where Units Of Specific Length Are In Use, The Corresponding Factor Is The Quotient Of The Twist Level And The Square Root Of The Count.
Twist Level - The Amount Of Twist Per Unit Length Of A Yarn. Note: With The Exception Of False-twisting , The Length Is Normally Assumed To Be That In The Twisted Form But, When Necessary, Ambiguity Can Be Avoided By Stating, For Example, Turns Per Twisted Metre Or Turns Per Untwisted Metre.
Twist Liveliness - The Tendency Of A Yam To Twist Or Untwist Spontaneously. Note 1: Examples Of Effects Which May Be Caused By Twist Liveliness Include Snarling Of Yarns During Processing And Spirality In Knitted Fabrics.
Twistless Spinning - A System Of Yarn Formation That Relies On The Use Of A Permanent Or Temporary Adhesive To Bond Fibers Together. Note: Where A Temporary Adhesive Is Used It Is Removed During Fabric Finishing, And The Yarn (and Fabric) Strength Is Then Obtained Through Lateral Pressure Produced By The Interlacings In The Fabric. A Similar Fabric Construction Can Be Achieved By Using Wrap Spun Yarns Which Have Been Produced With A Soluble Binder.
Twistless Yarn - A Yarn Prepared Without Twist In Order To Obtain Special Properties, E.g., Increased Softness And Dyeability.Twitty - Descriptive Of An Irregular Yarn Or Stubbing In Which Local Concentrations Of Twist Have Accentuated The Irregular Appearance.