Cable Stitch - A Knit Fabric Stitch That Produces A Design That Looks Like A Heavy Cord- Common In Sweaters And Hosiery.
Cabled Yarn - Two Or More Folded Yarns Twisted Together In One Or More Operations., Note 1: Combinations Of Folded Yarn(s) And Single Yarn(s) May Be Described As Cabled Yarns, E.g., A Single Yarn Twisted Together With Two Folded Yarns To Give Softness To The Resulting Yarn., Note 2: In The Tyre-yarn And Tyre-cord Sections Of The Industry, Cabled Yarns Are Termed Cabled Cords Or Cords.
Cagoule - Rainwear that is basically a fitted poncho. It's like a jacket on top, but it extends to the knees. Pronounced [kah-GOOL].
Cake - The Package, Roughly Cylindrical In Shape, Of Continuous-filament Yarn Produced In The Viscose Spinning Industry By Means Of A Topham Box.
Calache Or Calash - A Protective Folding Hood Worn To Protect High Headresses C. 1770s-1830s And Made Like A Sunbonnet.
Calendered - A process for finishing fabrics in which such special effects as high luster, glazing, embossing, and moiree are produced. A Flat, Smooth, Glossy Finish Applied To The Fabric By Passing It Through Heavy Rollers Under Pressure And Usually Heat. Cire, Chintz, Moire, & Glazing Are Examples Of Calendered Finishes.
Calfskin-Leather - Fine, strong leather most commonly used in shoes and accessories.
Calico - A tightly-woven cotton type fabric with an all-over print, usually a small floral pattern on a contrasting background color. Common end-uses include dresses, aprons, and quilts.
Cambric - A Plain Weave, Traditionally Light Weight Cotton Fabric With A Luster On The Surface . Used For Handkerchiefs Underwear, Shirts, Aprons , Tablecloths.
Camel's Hair - A natural fiber obtained from the hair of the Bactrian camel, a two-humped pack-carrying species. The fiber is used primarily in coats, sweaters, and suits.
Candlewick - A Tufted Pile Fabric With A Fuzzy Surface That Looks Like Chenille . It Is Made By Looping A Heavy Plied Yarn On A Muslin Base Then Cutting The Loops. Used For Bedspreads, Robes, Draperies.
Canons, Also Cannons - 17th Century, Full, Wide Ruffles/flounces Attached At The Bottom Of Breeches, Especially Petticoat Breeches. It Was A Sort Of Half-stocking, At First Long And Narrow, Then Wider And Decorated With Flounces And Lace.
Canton Flannel - A Heavy, Warm, Strong Cotton Or Cotton Blend Fabric With A Twill Face And A Brushed Back . Used For Nightwear, Underwear, Gloves, Linings. Originally Produced In Canton China.
Canvas - Cotton, linen, or synthetic fabric made with a basic plain weave in heavy and firm weight yarns for industrial or heavy duty purposes. Also referred to as "duck", although the term "canvas" usually relates to the heavier, coarser constructions.
Canvas / Duck - A Strong, Firm, Tightly Woven, Durable Fabric Usually Of Cotton But Sometimes Of Linen, Hemp Or Other Fibers. It Is Usually Plain Weave But Sometimes With A Crosswise Rib. It Is Produced In A Variety Of Weights & Used In A Variety Of Products Such As Tents, Awnings, Sails, Upholstery, Footwear, Jackets, Trousers.
Cape Net - A Stiff Heavy Net Which Can Be Shaped When Wet And Holds That Shape When Dried . Used For Hats.
Capillary Action - A process by which liquids are drawn through the fabric and into pores found between fibers and yarns.
Capotain Or Copotain - A High Conical, High Crowned And Small-brimmed Cap Fashionable In The 16th Century. In The Mid-17th Century Worn By Supporters Of The Puritan Fraction In England.
Carbon - A Term Used To Describe Fibers Containing At Least 98% Of Carbon Obtained By Controlled Pyrolosis Of Appropriate Fibers.
Carbonized Rag Fiber - Animal Fiber Recovered By Either The Wet Or The Dry Carbonizing Process.
Carbonizing - A Chemical Process For Eliminating Cellulosic Matter From Admixture With Animal Fibers By Degrading The Cellulosic Material To An Easily Friable Condition. The Process Involves Treatment With An Acid, As By The Use Of Hydrochloric Acid Gas (dry Process) Or Sulphuric Acid Solution (wet Process), Followed By Heating.
Carded - A Yarn In Which The Fibers Have Been Partially Straightened And Cleaned Prior To Spinning. The Yarn Is Generally Coarser And More Uneven Than A Combed Yarn.
Cardigan (Full) - A Variation Of A 1x1 Rib Stitch With 2 Sets Of Needles There Is Alternate Knitting And Tucking On One Course Then Tucking And Knitting On The Next Course. The Fabric Has The Same Look On Both Sides As Every Wale On Both Sides Has Both A Held Loop And A Tuck Loop. Also Called Polka Rib.
Cardigan (Half) - A Variation Of A 1x1 Rib Stitch With Knitting & Tucking In Alternate Courses On One Set Of Needles. The Construction On The Back Is The Reverse Of The Face . Also Called Royal Rib.
Carding - A process which eliminates fibers too short for inclusion in the spun yarn. The process also removes dirt and foreign matter still remaining in the fiber mass, and arranges the fibers into a very thin layer.
Carrier (coloration) - A Type Of Accelerant, Particularly Used In The Dyeing And Printing Of Hydrophobic Fibers With Disperse Dyes.
Carrier (fiber) - A Fiber That Is Blended With The Main Constituent Fiber To Improve Processing Behavior.
Carrotting - The Modification Of The Tips Of Fur Fiber (rabbit Fur) By Chemical Treatment To Improve Their Felting Capacity. Reagents Generally Used Are Mercury In Nitric Acid And Mixtures Of Oxidizing And Hydrolysing Agents.
Casein - The Principal Protein In Milk. It Serves As The Raw Material For Some Regenerated Protein Fibers.
Casement Cloth - A General Term For Sheer, Lightweight, Open Weave Fabrics Used For Curtains And Backing For Heavy Drapery.
Cashmere - Extremely high-quality, fine wool made from the soft undercoat of the cashmere goat. Cashmere yarns create a fabric that is extremely soft, lightweight and luxurious to the touch. Because of its lightweight qualities, cashmere is a fabric that can be worn all year round.
Cassock, Also Casaque - Three-quarter Length Coat Cut With Wide, Full Sleeves And Wide Throughout The Body, Ending At Thigh-height Or Below. An Unbelted Overcoat, Open-sided And Almost Always Covered With Braid And Woven Ornament. It Was Worn From The Middle Of The 16th Century, Mainly For Hunting And Riding.
Cationic - A Type Of Dye Used On Acrylic Or On Modified Polyester Or Modified Nylon Yarn . Often Used To Achieve Cross Dyed Effects Cationic Dyeable Yarn Is Woven In A Pattern With Regular Yarn In The Same Fabric. The Pattern Becomes Visible By Dyeing The Fabric In 2 Baths, One For Each Of The Types Of Yarn.
Cationic Dye - A Dye That Dissociates In Aqueous Solution To Give A Positively Charged Colored Ion.
Causticizing - Brief Treatment Of Cellulosic Fabrics With Caustic Soda Solution At Room Temperature Without Tension To Improve The Color Yield In Printing And Dyeing, Particularly With Reactive Dyes.
Cavalier-style - The Flamboyant Men's Fashion Of The First Half Of The 17th Century. The Supporters Of The English King Charles I Were Called Cavaliers, In Contrast To The Plain Dressed Puritans.
Cavalry Twill - A Sturdy Woven Fabric With A Steep Pronounced Double Twill Line . Often Of Cotton Or Wool But May Be Any Fiber.
Cavings - The Reject From The Bottom Ridge Of A Roughing-out Machine Consisting Mostly Of Rough Bits Of Broken Straw And Some Root Ends.
Cellulose - A material derived from the cell walls of certain plants. Cellulose is used in the production of many vegetable fibers, as well as being the major raw material component used in the production of the manufactured fibers of acetate, rayon, and triacetate.
Cellulose Diacetate - Theoretically, An Ester Of Cellulose And Ethanoic Acid Containing 48.8% Of Combined Ethanoic Acid (acetic Acid). This, However, Is Not A Commercial Product. The Same Term Is Sometimes Used Loosely To Describe Propanone-soluble (acetone-soluble) Cellulose Acetate.
Cellulose Ethanoate - An Ester Formed From Cellulose And Ethanoic Acid (acetic Acid) Used To Make Acetate Fibers. , Note: Purified Cellulose Is Ethanoylated (acetylated) By Ethanoic Anhydride (acetic Anhydride) In The Presence Of A Catalyst (such As Sulphuric Acid Or Perchloric Acid) In A Solvent Such As Dichloromethane (methylene Chloride) Or Ethanoic Acid. The Reaction Proceeds Until Primary Cellulose Acetate Containing 60% Of Combined Ethanoic Acid Is Formed. Secondary Cellulose Acetate Is Formed From The Primary Acetate By Partial Hydrolysis. It Is Obtained By Adding Water In Excess Of That Required To React With The Residual Ethanoic Anhydride, Which Thus Allows The Hydrolysis To Take Place.
Cellulose Triacetate - Theoretically, A Cellulose Acetate Containing 62.5% Of Combined Ethanoic Acid (acetic Acid) But The Term Is Generally Used For Primary Cellulose Ethanoate (acetate) Containing More Than 60% Of Combined Ethanoic Acid.
Cellulose Xanthate - A Series Of Compounds Formed Between Carbon Disulphide And Cellulose In The Presence Of Strong Alkali.
Cendal - Silk Material Resembling Taffeta. It Was Made In Various Qualities, Sometimes Even Mentioned As A Luxury Fabric, Sometimes Only As Cheap Lining Material. Widely Used During The Middle Ages, But In The 17th Century It Was Only Used For Lining.
Centre Front - It Is The Portion Of The Pattern Or The Garment Which Is Suppose To Come In The Exact Front.
Centrifugal Spinning - A Method Of Man-made Fiber Production In Which The Molten Or Dissolved Polymer Is Thrown Centrifugally In Fiber Form From The Edge Of A Surface Rotating At High Speed., The Term Is Also Used To Describe A Method Of Yarn Formation Involving A Rotating Cylindrical Container, In Which, The Yarn Passes Down A Central Guide Tube And Is Then Carried By Centrifugal Force To The Inside Of A Rotating Cylindrical Container.
Chaconne - Type Of Cravat Made Of A Ribbon Dangling From The Shirt Collar To The Chest. It Takes Its Name From The Dancer Pécourt Who Danced A Chaconne In 1692 With His Cravat Tied In This Way.
Chaff - A Component Of Trash In Cotton In The Form Of A Heterogeneous Assortment Of Vegetable Fragments, Most Of Them Being Small Pieces Of Leaf And Stalk.
Challis - A lightweight, soft plain weave fabric with a slightly brushed surface. The fabric is often printed, usually in a floral pattern. Challis is most often seen in fabrics made of cotton, wool, or rayon.
Chambray - A plain woven fabric that can be made from cotton, silk, or manufactured fibers, but is most commonly cotton. It incorporates a colored warp (often blue) and white filling yarns
Chameleon - A 3 Tone Effect That Changes With The Angle Of View . It Is Achieved By Using A Warp Yarn Of One Color And Double Weft Yarns Of 2 Different Colors. It Is Often Found In Taffetas , Poplins Or Failles Of Silk Or Made Made Filament Yarns
Chamois-like - A Hand Suggesting The Soft Pliable Leather From The Skin Of The Chamois Goat.
Chand-tara - Literally, "moon And Star", A Pattern Often-used In Indian Textile.
Chantilly Lace - This lace has a net background, and the pattern is created by embroidering with thread and ribbon to create floral designs. The pattern has areas of design that are very dense, and the pattern is often outlined with heavier cords or threads.
Charged System - A Method Of Dry Cleaning In Which An Oil-soluble Reagent Such As Petroleum Sulphonate Is Added To The Solvent So That A Significant Amount Of Water Can Be Added To Obtain A Substantially Clear Dispersion Of Water In The Solvent. In A High-charged System The Concentration Of Added Reagent, A So-called Detergent Is 4% While, In A Low-charged System The Concentration Ranges From 3/4% To 2%.
Charmuese - A luxurious, supple silky fabric with a shiny satin face and a dull back. Generally either silk, rayon ,or polyester. Suitable for blouses, fuller pants and lingerie.
Chaubandi Chola - A Short Tunic Or Shirt Fastened With Tie-cords Worn By Children.
Chaugoshia - A Four-cornered Cap.
Chauri - A Flywhisk Made Generally From A Yak's Tail. Important As A Symbol Of Royalty Or Divinity.
Chausses En Bourses - Early 17th Century Breeches Made In Bands And Padded So They Swelled Out At The Bottom, Ending In A Flattened Balloon Shape.
Check - A Small Pattern Of Squares Or Rectangles. It May Be Printed, Yarn Dyed , Cross Dyed Or Woven Into The Fabric ( As A Dobby Or Jacquard).
Cheese Cloth - Muslin/Gauze.
Chemic; Chemick - Calcium Or Sodium Hypochlorite.
Chemically Treated Fabrics - Base layer fabrics where the outer surfaces has been treated with a hydrophilic chemical that wicks or draws sweat from the skin to the outer surface.
Chemicking - Bleaching Non-protein Fiber Material By Means Of A Dilute Hypochlorite Solution.
Chemise - A Light Undergarment Made From Linen, For Both Sexes.
Chenille - 1. A specialty yarn, characterized by a pile protruding on all sides, resembling a caterpillar. The yarn is produced by first weaving a fabric with a cotton or linen warp and a silk, wool, rayon, or cotton filling. The warp yarns are taped in groups of tightly woven filling yarns, which have been beaten in very closely. After weaving, the fabric is cut into strips between the yarn groups. Each cutting produces a continuous chenille yarn, which is then twisted, creating the chenille yarn, and giving the pile appearance on all sides of the yarn. The chenille yarn is used mainly for decorative fabrics, embroidery, tassels, and rugs. 2. A fabric woven from the chenille yarn.
Cheviot - 1.A Rough Surfaced Fabric Of Wool With A Heavy Nap. Used For Coating. 2. A Loosely Woven Tweed Fabric With A Shaggy Texture . Cheviot Was Originally Made From The Wool Of The Cheviot Sheep In The Hills At The Bordering England And Scotland.
Chevron - A Design Which Incorporates Herringbone Elements Of Zigzag Stripes Or Joined V's
Chiffon - A Lightweight , Sheer, Plain Weave Fabric With A Dull Surface, A Soft Hand , And Good Drape. It Is Made With Fine High Twisted Yarns And Has An Even Or Close To Even Number Of Threads Per Inch In The Warp And Weft. Originally Made In Silk But Now Found In Polyester And Other Man-made Filament Yarns. Used In Dresses Blouses, Scarves, Veils.
Chikan Kari - Embroidery In White Cotton Thread Upon Fine White Cotton Fabric, Like, Muslin. Several Techniques In Chikan-kar Are Known; Lucknow Was A Famous Center Of Fine Workmanship.
Children's - Refers To Designs Suitable For The Children's Market.
Child's Pudding - Small Round Hats For Children Made Of Cloth Or Straw, Forming A Shock-absorber To Protect Them If They Fell.
China Grass - Ramie.
Chinchilla - A Thick, Heavy, Pile Fabric With Surface Curls Or Nubs, Originally Made To Suggest Chinchilla Fur . It Is Often Double Faced. It May Be Woven Or Knit And Is Often Used As Coating.
Chino - A Sturdy, Medium Weight, Twill Fabric Usually Of Cotton Or A Cotton Blend. It Has Often Been Used For Summer Weight Military Uniforms, Sportswear And Work Clothes. It Is Often Found In Khaki And Tan Colors.
Chinoiserie - A Old Chinese Decorative Style Still Used In Textiles.
Chintz - A plain-weave fabric, which has been glazed to produce a polished look. Usually made of cotton, this fabric is most commonly used in blouses, dresses, draperies, and slipcovers.
Chirimen - A Japanese Term Describing A Dull Crepe Fabric Made With A Course Yarn. Originally Of Silk But Now Found In Man Made Filaments Such As Polyester.
Chite - Painted Linen, Originally From Chitta (india) Which Started The Fashion For Painted Linens In The 17th And 18th Centuries.
Chlorinated Wool - Wool in the fiber, yarn, or fabric form which are treated chemically to decrease felting shrinkage and increase ability to take dyes.
Chlorination - When Used With Reference To Textile Processing, A Term Indicating The Reaction Of A Fiber With Chlorine. The Chlorine May Be In The Form Of A Gas, Or Its Solution In Water Or It May Be Obtained From A Suitable Compound.
Chlorofiber - A Term Used To Describe Fibers Composed Of Synthetic Linear Macromolecules Having In The Chain More Than 50% (by Mass) Of Chloroethene (vinyl Chloride) Or 1,1-dichloroethene (vinylidene Chloride) Groups. If The Rest Of The Chain Is Made Up Of Cyanoethene (acylonitrile) Groups Then The Chloroethene Content Must Be Greater Than 65%, Thus Excluding Modacrylic Fibers From This Definition.
Chogaichoga - A Loose, Sleeved Coat-like Garment Worn Over An Inner Garment Like The Angarakha (q.v.), Generally Sumptuous And Appropriate For Ceremonial Occasions. Of Turkish Origin, The Chogha Was Also Known As A Chugha, Chuha Orjuha; In Russia As Shuba Or Sbubka.
Choli - A Short, Bodice-like Breast Garment Of Wide Popularity Among Women In India, From Early Times. Related To The Classic Cholaka Mentioned In Sanskrit Literature. The Garment Is Worn In Many Styles; Thus, With Back Covering Or Without, Fastened With Strings Or Extended Cloth-pieces, With Shaped Breast-pieces Or Flat, Etc.
Cholu - A Loose, Shirt-like Garment.
Chrome Dye - A Mordant Dye Capable Of Forming A Chelate Complex With A Chromium Atom.
Chrome Mordant Process - A Method Of Dyeing Whereby The Fiber Is Mordanted With A Solution Of A Chromium Compound And Subsequently Dyed With A Suitable Chrome Dye.
Chromophore - That Part Of The Molecular Structure Of An Organic Dye Or Pigment Responsible For Color.
Chrysalis - The Form Taken By A Silkworm In The Dormant Stage Of Development Between Larva And Moth. It Is Dark Brown And Fragments Of It Can Often Be Detected In Silk Waste, Especially Noils.
Churidar - With Bangle-like Gathers Or Wrinkles, As In A Churidar Payan.
Circular Knit - Refers To Fabrics Knit On A Circular Knitting Machine, I.e. One Which Has Its Needles Arranged In A Circle Thus Producing The Fabric In Tubular Form . The Fabrics May Be Sold Tubular Or Slit And Sold Open Width. A Circular Knitting Machine May Be Used To Produce Full Width Fabrics Or Narrow Shaped Components Such As For Hosiery.
Cire - A Finishing Process That Produces A High Gloss On The Surface On The Fabric By Passing It Through Heavy Rollers (calendering) . Fabrics Made Of Thermoplastic Fibers Like Nylon Or Polyester Are Cired By Calendering With Heat And Pressure Alone. Other Fabrics Like Rayons Or Silks Are Calendered With Wax Or Other Compounds.
Classing - A Process By Which Whole Fleeces Are Separated Into Different Classes Before Being Baled And Sold.
Cleaning - Hand operation in which the basting threads are removed from the garment; usually done prior to the final pressing.
Clear - In Synthetic Fibers The Term Clear Is Commonly Used To Denote The Absence Of Delustrant.
Clip - One Season's Yield Of Wool.
Clip Dot /clip Spot - A Design Effect Created On A Woven Fabric By The Use Of Extra Yarns Which Are Woven Into The Fabric At A Certain Spot Then Allowed To Float Over The Fabric To The Next Spot. The Float Threads Are Later Trimmed But Often Are Allowed To Protrude From The Surface Of The Fabric As Part Of The Design.
Clo Value - A unit of thermal resistance. The insulation required to produce the necessary heat to keep an individual comfortable at 21 degrees Centigrade with air movement at .1 m/s. One clo is about equal to the insulation value of typical indoor clothing.
Cloque / Blister Fabric - A General Term To Describe Fabrics With A Blister (pucker) On The Surface. The Blister May Be Created By Several Different Methods Such As Printing With Caustic Soda Or Other Chemicals, By Weaving Together Yarns Under Different Tension, Or By Weaving Together Yarns With Different Shrinkage Properties.
Closures - Items used to close openings in apparel and other consumer textile products, i.e. buttons, buckles, hook and eye, snaps and zippers.
Cloth - A Generic Term Embracing Most Textile Fabrics. The Term Was Originally Applied To Wool Fabric Suitable For Clothing.
Clothing Wool - Wools Of Short Fiber, Not Suitable For Combing, And Used In The Manufacture Of Woollens.
Cluny Lace - A Heavy Bobbin Lace Using Thick Yarns Usually Of Cotton Or Linen. Most Often Done In Geometric Patterns . Used For Curtains Doilies And Trim For Apparel.
Coarse - Having Thick Yarns.
Coated - Refers to a fabric that has been treated with a chemical coating such as polyurethane, acrylic or teflon on one or both sides to make it waterproof and possibly breathable. In a heavy, waterproof/nonbreathable form, coatings are used in objects like tents and packs. In lighter, microporous breathable form, they're used in outerwear.The trade-off between waterproofing and breathability depends on coating thickness. More coating equals more waterproofing, less breathability, and vice versa. Coatings are not as durable as laminates, especially during the wash.
Coated Fabrics - Fabrics that have been coated with a lacquer, varnish, rubber, plastic resin of polyvinyl chloride or polyethylene, or other substance to make them longer lasting or impervious to water or other liquids.
Cockade - A Ribbon Bow Deriving From The Tie Attaching The Brim Of A Cocked Hat. Originally Decorative, It Was Also Used As Political Identification; Thus The White Cockade Was Worn By The Jacobites, And The Tricoleur By The French Republicans.
Cocked Hat - A Hat Which Is Styled With The Brim Turned Up. Particularly Applied To Styles Of The 17th And 18th Century.
Cocoon - An Egg-shaped Casing Of Silk Spun By The Silkworm To Protect Itself As A Chrysalis.
Cocoon Strippings - The First Threads Secreted By The Silkworm When It Finds A Place To Form Its Cocoon.
Coif - Medieval To 17th Century Term For Close-fitting Head Covering. Worn In The Later Period Exclusively By Women.
Coiffure En Bouffons - Women's Hairstyle From The End Of The Reign Of Louis Xiii, Tufts Of Crimped Hair Over The Temples, While The Forehead Was Covered By A Fringe Known As A Garcette.
Coir - A Reddish-brown-to-buff Colored Coarse Fiber Obtained From The Fruit Of The Palm Cocos Nucifera L.
Cold Drawing - The Drawing Of Synthetic Filaments Or Films Without The Intentional Application Of External Heat., Note: Free Drawing Of Filaments Or Films At A Neck Is Also Referred To As Cold Drawing Even Though This May Be Carried Out In A Heated Environment., Color, (1) Sensation. That Characteristic Of The Visual Sensation Which Enables The Eye To Distinguish Differences In Its Quality, Such As May Be Caused By Differences In The Spectral Distribution Of The Light Rather Than By Differences In The Spatial Distribution Or Fluctuations With Time.(2) Of An Object. The Particular Visual Sensation (as Defined Above) Caused By The Light Emitted By, Transmitted Through, Or Reflected From The Object., Note: The Color Of A Non-self luminous Object Is Dependent On The Spectral Composition Of The Incident Light, The Spectral Reflectance Or Transmittance Of The Object And The Spectral Response Of The Observer. Color Can Be Described Approximately In Terms Of Hue, Saturation And Lightness, Or Specified Numerically By Chromaticity Co-ordinates E.g., Those Defined By The C.i.e. Standard Observer Data (1964). Alternatively, Color Can Be Specified By Reference To Visual Standards, E.g., The Munsell Color Atlas.
Collar - Two or more thicknesses of fabric attached to the neckhole opening to provide a firm and neat-appearing finish.
Collar (Banded) - The visible or panel portion of the collar is cut separately and attached to the neckband portion. This is normal dress shirt construction.
Collar (convertible) - The panel or visible portion of the collar and the neckband portion are cut as one piece, but folded once along the length to produce the appearance of a banded collar.
Collar (Lined) - A collar made by placing a piece of interlining between the two pieces of body fabric.
Collar (one piece) - A collar constructed from a single piece of fabric with the center fold forming the outer edge.
Collar (padding) - Attaching the under-collar to canvas with several rows of blindstitching.
Collar (sandwich) - A collar which has the top-collar inserted between the canvas and the under-collar.
Collar (topstitched) - A collar with an added row of stitching along the folded edges.
Collar (two-piece) - A collar formed by joining two identical pieces, inverting and sometimes topstitching along the folded edges.
Color Abrasion - Color changes in localized areas of a garment due to differential wear, such as the knees of blue jeans. Often evident in cross-dye shades of blends where durable press treatments are applied. Color abrasion is often called "frosting".
Color Constancy - The Ability Of A Colored Object To Give The Same General Color Impression When Viewed Under Different Illuminants, The Observer Having Been Chromatically Adapted In Each Case.note: The Most Common Comparison Is Made Between The Impression Under Artificial Light, E.g., Tungsten Filament, And That Under Daylight.
Color Quality - A Specification Of Color In Terms Of Both Hue And Saturation, But Not Luminance.
Color Value / Tinctorial Value - The Color Yield Of A Colorant, Compared With A Standard Of Equal Cost. Note: It Is Usually Determined By Comparing The Cost Of Coloration At Equal Visual Strength. Comparisons Are Normally Made Between Products Of Similar Hue And Properties.
Colorfastness - A fabric's ability to withstand environmental exposure, dry cleaning and laundering without fading or bleeding. Colorfastness depends on the types of fiber, dye and treatment used to set the color.
Combed - Refers To A Process In The Manufacture Of Cotton And Other Staple Yarns. The Fiber Is Combed To Remove Foreign Matter And The Shorter, Undesirable Fibers, Leaving Longer, More Desirable Fibers That Become Straightened & Aligned In Parallel Before Spinning Into Yarn. Combed Yarns Are Finer, Cleaner And More Even Than Those That Are Not Combed.
Combed Yarn. - Yarn Produced From Fibers That Have Been Carded (or Prepared) And Combed.
Combination Yarn - A Yarn In Which There Are Dissimilar Component Yarns Especially When These Are Of Fiber And Filaments.
Combing - The combing process is an additional step beyond carding. In this process the fibers are arranged in a highly parallel form, and additional short fibers are removed, producing high quality yarns with excellent strength, fineness, and uniformity.
Comfort Stretch - The term given to the freedom of movement experienced in the wearing of a garment that contains spandex, or has stretch engineered into a yarn through mechanical stretch construction.
Commercial Standards - "Recorded voluntary standards of the trade." The U.S. Bureau of Standards issues Commercial Standards which are not laws, but are important as accepted voluntary benchmarks of performance and quality by the industry. These standards are usually referred to by number, and spell out test procedures and minimum performance guidelines.
Commode - A Wire Frame On Which The Late 17th Century High Ladies' Headdress, The Fontange, Was Adjusted.
Compact - Refers To A Tight, Dense Fabric With A Firm Hand.
Composite - A Solid Product Consisting Of Two Or More Discrete Physical Phases, Including A Binding Material (matrix) And A Fibrous Material.
Composite Fabric - An engineered fabric made from two or more components. One component is often a strong fiber such as fiberglass, Kevlar(r), or carbon fiber that gives the material its tensile strength, while another component (often called a matrix) is often a resin, such as polyester or epoxy that binds the fibers together.
Composite Yarn - A Yarn Composed Of Both Staple And Continuous-filament Components, E.g., Core Spun Or Wrap Spun.
Compression Fabric - A high tenacity stretch fabric which, when in a close fitting garment, provides muscles with a firm compression fit that lessons vibrations, reduces fatigue, and keeps muscles energized. The fabric is usually made in a knit construction, using a series of gradient fibers with an open knit inner surface to create a moisture transfer environment.
Compressive Shrinkage - A Process In Which Fabric Is Caused To Shrink In Length E.g., By Compression. The Process Is Often Referred To As Ccs (controlled Compressive Shrinkage).
Conch Or Conque - Sort Of Large Shell-shaped Hat In Gauze Or Light Crepe, Mounted On A Wire Framework, Which Was In France Mostly Worn My Widows In The Late 16th And Early 17th Centuries. At The Same Time A Similar Veil, But Generally Much Bigger And Made Of Pale Gauze, Seems To Have Been High Fashion In England.
Condense Dye - A Dye Which, During Or After Application, Reacts Covalently With Itself Or Other Compounds, Other Than The Substrate, To Form A Molecule Of Greatly Increased Size.
Condenser - The Last Section Of A Condenser Card: It Divides A Broad Thin Web Of Fibers Into Narrow Strips, Which Then Consolidated By Rubbing Into Slubbings.
Condenser Card - A Roller-and-clearer Type Of Card, As Distinct From A Flat Card, Which Converts Fibrous Raw Materials Slubbings, By Means Of A Condenser.
Condenser Spun - Descriptive Of Yarn Spun From Slubbing.
Condition - (1) The Moisture Present In Textile Fibers In Their Raw Or Partly Or Wholly Manufactured Form., (2) To Allow Textile Materials (raw Materials, Slivers, Yarns, And Fabrics) To Come To Hygroscopic Equilibrium With The Surrounding Atmosphere Or With The Standard Atmosphere For Testing., (3) To Add Relatively Small Quantities Of Water To Textile Materials (raw Materials, Slivers, Yarns And Fabrics)., Note: The Object Of Conditioning Is To Prepare For Testing, Or To Bring Textiles To An Agreed Moisture Content For Sale Or To Facilitate Later Processing. Among Methods Used For Applying Water Are: (a) Mechanical Means During Gilling Or Winding, (b) The Use Of Conditioning Machines, And Storing In An Atmosphere Of Very High Relative Humidity.
Conditioner Tube - A Tube Supplied With Steam Or Hot Air Surrounding A Melt-spun Thread-line And Located Between Extrusion And Wind-up, Whose Purpose Is To Control The Fine Structure Of The Yarn., Cone, (1) A Conical Support On Which Yarn Is Wound., (2) A Conical Package Of Yarn Wound On A Conical Support.
Contemporary - Currently In Vogue
Continuous Cure - A method of curing durable press garments which uses a moving conveyor system to carry garments into and out of the curing oven. Also known as continuous oven.
Continuous Filament - A long continuous, unbroken strand of fiber extruded from a spinneret in the form of a monofilament. Most manufactured fibers such as nylon, polyester, rayon, and acetate are made in continuous filament form.
Continuous Yarn Felting - A Process Whereby Slivers, Rovings, Slubbings, Or Yarns Are Felted On A Continuous Basis. This Is Achieved By Passing Wool-rich Material Through A Unit Where It Is Agitated An Aqueous Medium Where Felting Takes Place. The Process Is Used To Produce A Yarn, Or Consolidate A Spun Yarn.
Continuous-Filament - A term that describes a yarn made up of indefinitely continuous fibers. Used mostly in synthetic insulations. Known for long-term durability.
Continuous-Filament Yarn / Filament Yarn - A Yarn Composed Of One Or More Filaments That Run Essentially The Whole Length Of The Yarn. Yarns Of One Or More Filaments Are Usually Referred To As Monofilament Or Multifilament Respectively.
Conventional Allowance - The Percentage That, In The Calculation Of Commercial Weight And Yarn Count Or Linear Density, Is Added To The Oven-dry Weight Of The Textile Material, Which Has Been Previously Washed Free Of Finish. For Such Material, The Conventional Allowance Is Arbitrarily Chosen According To Commercial Practice, And Includes The Moisture Regain And The Normal Finish That Is Added To Impart Satisfactory Textile Qualities.
Conversational - Whimsical Designs Or Designs With A Theme.
Converter - A person or a company which buys grey goods and sells them as finished fabrics. A converter organizes and manages the process of finishing the fabric to a buyers' specifications, particularly the bleaching, dyeing, printing, etc.
Converter - A person or a company which buys grey goods and sells them as finished fabrics. A converter organizes and manages the process of finishing the fabric to a buyers' specifications, particularly the bleaching, dyeing, printing, etc.
Converter / Merchant Converter - An Individual Who Or An Organization Which Locates A Supplier And Purchases Grey Fabric, Procures Its Finishing And Then Re-sells The Finished Fabric To Customers.
Converting / Conversion - The Production, From A Filament Tow Or Tows, Of A Staple Sliver In Such A Way That The Essential Parallel Arrangement Of The Filaments Is Maintained. Note: The Two Methods Of Converting Most Commonly Employed Are:, (a) Crush Cutting, In Which The Filaments Of The Tow Are Severed By Crushing Between An Anvil Roller And A Cutting Roller With Raised 'blades' Helically Disposed Around Its Surface, And , (b) Stretch Breaking, In Which The Filaments Of The Tow Are Broken By Progressive Stretch Between Successive Sets Of Rollers., If Subsequently A Top Is Required, Further Processes Of Re-breaking And/or Gilling May Be Necessary And The Whole Operation Is Then Often Referred To As Tow-to-top Converting Or Conversion.
Cool - A Smooth, Slick, Hand Generally Associated With Synthetics.
Cool Colors - Blue, Violet And Green Are Cool / Light Colors. They Are Reducing In Nature, As Seen By The Eye They Move Away From The Object Thereby Increasing It's Size. Cool Colors Have A Calm And Restful Effect.
Cooling Cylinder - An Open Cylinder, Or Alternatively A Closed Cylinder Filled With Cold Water, Over Which Hot Fabric Is Passed To Accelerate Cooling
Cop - A Form Of Yarn Package Spun On A Mule Spindle. The Term Can Also Be Used To Describe A Ring Tube.
Copolymer, Block - A Copolymer In Which The Repeating Units In The Main Chain Occur In Blocks, E.g.,-(a)m-(b)n-(a)p-(b)q- Where A And B Represent The Repeating Units.
Copolymer, Graft - A Copolymer Formed When Sequences Of One Repeating Unit Are Built As Side Branches Onto A Backbone Polymer Derived From Another Repeating Unit, E.g.,
Copolymer - A Polymer In Which The Repeating Units Are Not All The Same. Usually, But Not Always, Copolymers Are Formed From Two Or More Different Starting Materials. For Example, Chloroethene (vinyl Chloride) And 1,1-dichloroethene (vinylidene Chloride) Form A Copolymer That Contains The Repeating Units: -ch2-chcl- And -ch2-ccl2-, The Different Classes Of Copolymer Include Random Copolymers, Alternating Copolymers, Block Copolymers, And Graft Copolymers.
Cord - A Term Applied Loosely To A Variety Of Textile Strands Including (a) Cabled Yarns (b) Plied Yarns And (c) In Structures Made By Plaiting, Braiding Or Knitting.
Corded - 1. A Fabric With A Surface Rib Effect Resulting From The Use Of A Heavier Or Plied Yarn Together With Finer Yarns. 2. A Yarn Made From Two Or More Finer Yarns Twisted Together.
Corded Velour - Corduroy Look, velour finish
Cordon Yarn - A Two-ply Union Yarn Made From A Single Cotton Yarn And A Single Worsted Or Woollen Yarn.
Corduroy - A Strong, Durable, Woven Fabric Characterized By Vertical Cut Pile Stripes Or Cords With A Velvet- Like Nap. Corduroy Is Classified By The Number Of Wales Or Cords To The Inch. It Is Traditionally Of Cotton But May Be Cotton Blends Or Other Fibers As Well. Suitable for jackets, pants and skirts.
Core Sampling - A Method Of Taking Representative Samples From Bales Or Packs Of Textile Fibers Obtained By Inserting A Coring Tube Driven By Hand Or Machine Into Each Package., Note 1: Core Samples Can Be Used For The Determination Of Yield Or Fineness, But Not Fiber Length., Note 2: The Term Mini-core Sampling Is Applied To Small-scale Sampling.
Core Yarn - A yarn in which one type of fiber is twisted or wrapped around another fiber that serves as a core. Core yarns are often used to make stretch fabrics where the core is spandex or rubber, and the outer wrapped fiber is a textured manufactured fiber such as polyester or nylon.
Core-Spun Yarns - Consist of a filament base yarn, with an exterior wrapping of loose fiber which has not been twisted into a yarn. Polyester filament is often wrapped with a cotton outer layer in order to provide the strength and resiliency of polyester, along with the moisture-absorbent aesthetics and dye affinity of cotton. Sewing thread as well as household and apparel fabrics are made from these yarns.
Cornet - The Cornet Headdress Is A Simplified Fontange. The Cap Has An Upstanding Frill In Front And Lappets At The Back. The Veil Is Wired To Stand Up Above The Forehead. A Topknot Of Wired Ribbon Is Pinned At The Front Of The Cap; Fourth Quarter Of 17th Century.
Correct Invoice Weight - The Weight Of Material Calculated From The Oven-dry Weight And The Recommended Allowance.
Cortex - The Inner Portion Of Most Animal Hair Fibers. It Consists Of Spindle-shaped Cells.
Cotton - A soft, natural, vegetable fiber obtained from the seed-pod of the cotton plant. Cotton is the most widely used fiber in the world because of its versatility and ability to provide good comfort, particularly in apparel items. The chemical composition of cotton is almost pure cellulose. In its raw, undyed form, the normal color of cotton is a light to dark cream, though it may also be brown or green depending on the variety. Cotton fiber lengths vary from less than one-half inch, to more than two inches. Generally, long length cotton fibers are of better quality. Commercial types of cotton are classified by groups based on fiber length and fineness, and the geographical region of growth. Egyptian, American-Pima, and Indian are examples of different cotton types. Cotton is used in a wide variety of products including apparel, home furnishings, towels, rugs, and sewing thread.
Cotton Dust - Dust Present During The Handling Or Processing Of Cotton That May Contain A Mixture Of Substances, Including Smaller Particles Of Ground-up Plant Matter, Fiber, Bacteria, Fungi, Soil, Pesticides, Non-cotton Plant Matter And Other Contaminants Which May Have Accumulated During The Growing, Harvesting And Subsequent Processing Or Storage Periods.
Cotton Sheers - Batiste, lawn, organdy, and voile are all cotton sheers. Used for both home and apparel products.
Cotton Waste - There Are Two Classes Of Waste Known As 'hard' And 'soft', And Their Treatment Differs According To The Class. Hard Waste Is Essentially That From Spinning Frames, Reeling And Winding Machines And All Other Waste Of A Thready Nature. Soft Waste Comes From Earlier Processes Where The Fibers Are Relatively Little Twisted, Felted, Or Compacted.
Cotton Wool - A Web Or Batt Of Fibers Used For Medical Or Cosmetic Purposes Which Is Made From Cotton And/or Viscose Rayon.
Cotton-like - Refers To A Fabric That Feels Like Cotton.
Cotton-Pima - A cotton that, when woven, produces an exceptionally strong fiber.
Cotton-Poplin - A tightly woven high-quality fabric in a plain, flat weave.
Cotton-Sateen - A special weave which provides a sheen and luster to cotton. A beautifully refined finish to casual bottoms.
Cotton-spun - A Term Applied To Staple Yarn Produced On Machinery Originally Developed For Processing Cotton Into Yarn.
Cotton-Stretch Twill - Cotton blended with spandex that is woven in a subtle diagonal texture. The spandex adds comfort, stretch and a refined finish to casual bottoms. Stretch twill is available in a variety of finishes; a brushed finish in the Fall and during transitional times of the year gives the fabric a soft, sueded surface, while unbrushed twill for Spring and Summer is soft to the touch but tailors crisply.
Count - Methods Of Variously Expressing The Specific Length Or Length Per Unit Mass Of A Yarn. Also Termed Linear Density; Number Of Yarn; Yarn Count; Yarn Number; Grist.
Count of Cloth - The number of warp ends and picks per inch in a woven fabric. If a cloth is 68 X 72, it means there are 68 ends and 72 picks per inch in a woven fabric. A cloth that has the same number of ends and picks per inch in woven goods is called a square cloth. 80-square percale, for example, has 80 warp ends and 80 picks per inch.
Counting Glass - A Small Mounted Magnifying Glass For Examining Fabric. The Base Of The Mount Generally Contains A Unit Of Measurement Having An Aperture One Centimetre Square, One Inch Square Or Cross-shaped With Various Dimensions, Convenient For Counting Ends And Picks, Or Courses And Wales In A Fabric.
Count-strength Product (csp) - The Product Of The Lea Strength, And The Actual Count Of Cotton Yarn.
Couple - To Combine A Suitable Organic Component, Usually A Phenol Or An Arylamine, With A Diazonium Salt To Form An Azo Compound As In The Manufacture Of Azo Colorants, In Azoic Dyeing Or In After Treatment Of Direct Dyeing.
Course - The rows of loops or stitches running across a knitted fabric. Corresponds to the weft or filling in woven goods.
Course Length (weft-knitted) - The Length Of Yarn In A Knitted Course.
Course, Knitted - A Row Of Loops Across The Width Of A Fabric.
Couvrechef - A Veil Or Covering For The Head.
Cover - (1) The Degree Of Evenness And Closeness Of Thread Spacing. Good Cover Gives The Effect Of A Plane Surface And Cannot Be Obtained With Hard-twisted Yarns., (2) The Degree To Which, In Fabric Finishing, The Underlying Structure Is Concealed By The Finishing Materials Or Treatments.
Cover Factor (knitted Fabrics) - A Number That Indicates The Extent To Which The Area Of A Knitted Fabric Is Covered By The Yarn: An Indication Of The Relative Looseness Or Tightness Of The Knitting.
Cover Factor (woven Fabrics) - A Number That Indicates The Extent To Which The Area Of A Fabric Is Covered By One Set Of Threads. By Introducing Suitable Numerical Constants, Its Evaluation Can Be Made In Accordance With Any System Of Counting. For Any Fabric There Are Two Cover Factors: Warp Cover Factor And Weft Cover Factor.
Covered Yarn - A Yarn Made By Feeding One Yarn Under A Controlled Degree Of Tension Through The Axis Or Axes Of One Or More Revolving Spindles Carrying The Other (wrapping) Yarn(s).
Coverstock - A Permeable Fabric Used In Hygiene Products To Cover And Contain An Absorbent Medium., Crabbing, (1) A Process Used In The Worsted Trade To Set Fabric In A Smooth Flat State So That It Will Not Cockle, Pucker, Or Wrinkle During Subsequent Wet Processing. The Fabric Is Treated In Open Width And Warp-way Tension In A Hot Or Boiling Aqueous Medium, The Tension Being Maintained While The Fabric Is Cooling (see Setting)., (2) A Process Of Bringing A Lustrous Weft To Cover The Surface Of A Fabric, E.g., A Cotton-warp/mohair-weft Fabric.
Covert - A Medium To Heavy Twill Fabric With A Contrast In Color Between The Twill Line And The Ground . Usually Has A Mottled Or Flecked Appearance Caused By Using A Warp Yarn With 2 Or More Colors Twisted Together. The Filling Generally Is Of A Single Color.
Crabbing - A treatment used to set the cloth and yarn twists permanently in woolens and worsted goods.
Crash - A Coarse Woven Fabric With A Rough Surface, Made With Thick Uneven Yarns. Used For Table Linens , Draperies, Backings.
Cravat - Wide Cloth Or Piece Of Lace Knotted Or Tied Around The Neck. The Term Was First Used In The Mid-17th Century.
Cravat String - Ribbon Used In The 17th Century To Tie A Heavy Lace Cravat In Place; The Forerunner Of The 18th Century Solitaire.
Crease Resistant Finish - Also referred to as CRF. Finishes used on fabrics that make them resistant to wrinkling and creasing, such as synthetic resin type finishes like durable press. Today some fabrics are made highly resistant to wrinkling through fiber blending and construction.
Crease Retention - The ability of a cloth to hold or pleat or a crease, which has been intentionally created, through the use of a heat treatment. Heat setting of thermoplastic fibers causes creases to be permanently set.
Crease-recovery - The Measure Of Crease-resistance Specified Quantitatively In Terms Of Crease-recovery Angle.
Crease-resist Finish - A Finishing Process, Usually For Cellulosic-fiber Fabrics Or Their Blends, That Improves The Crease Recovery And Smooth-drying Properties. In The Process Used Most Extensively, The Fabric Is Impregnated With A Solution Of A Reagent That Penetrates The Fibers, And, After Drying And Curing Cross-links The Fiber Structure Under The Influence Of A Catalyst And Heat. The Crease Resistant Effect Is Durable To Wash And Wear.
Crease-resistance - A Term Used To Indicate Resistance To, And/or Recovery From, Creasing Of A Textile Material During Use.
Creel - A Structure For Holding Supply Packages In Textile Processing., Crimp, (1) (fiber). The Waviness Of A Fiber. Note: This Fiber Characteristic May Be Expressed Numerically As The Crimp Frequency Or As The Difference Between The Lengths Of The Straightened And Crimped Fiber, Expressed As A Percentage Of The Straightened Length.(2) (yarn) (UK., Take-up, Regain, Shrinkage) The Waviness Or Distortion Of A Yarn That Is Due To Interlacing In The Fabric., Note: In Woven Fabrics, The Crimp Is Measured By The Relation Between The Length Of The Fabric Sample And The Corresponding Length Of Yarn When It Is Removed Therefrom And Straightened Under Suitable Tension., Crimp May Be Expressed Numerically As (a) Percentage Crimp, Which Is 100 Divided By The Fabric Length And Multiplied By The Difference Between The Yarn Length And The Fabric Length, And (b) Crimp Ratio, Which Is The Ratio Of Yarn Length To Fabric Length. In Both Methods, The Fabric Length Is The Basis, That Is To Say, 100 For Percentage Crimp And 1 For Crimp Ratio. This Definition Could Logically Be Applied To Knitted Fabrics Or Fabrics Of Pile Construction, But It Is Preferable To Employ Special Terms, E.g., 'stitch Length', Or 'terry Ratio'.
Crepe - A fabric made of synthetic or natural fibers that are twisted to give a slightly crinkled texture. Most commonly used in suitings, crepe textures are now an important fashion message for sweaters and sportswear separates.
Crepe Back Satin - A satin fabric in which highly-twisted yarns are used in the filling direction. The floating yarns are made with low twist and may be of either high or low luster. If the crepe effect is the right side of the fabric, the fabric is called satin-back crepe.
Crepe De Chine - A Lightweight Plain Weave Fabric Usually Of Silk Or Man Made Filament Yarns With A Slight Crepe Texture Produces By Using High Twist Yarns . Used In Blouses And Dresses.
Crepey - Refers To A Fabric With A Pebble Like Texture.
Crepon / Yoryu - A Fabric With A Pleat-like Crinkle Effect In The Warp ( Lengthwise) Direction Of The Fabric, Made With High Twist Yarns.
Cretonne - A Plain Weave Fabric, Usually Cotton, With A Neutral Ground And Brightly Colored Floral Designs, Similar To Chintz But With A Dull Finish And Sometimes Heavier. Used For Draperies And Upholstery.
Crewel - A true crewel fabric is embroidered with crewel yarn (a loosely twisted, two-ply wool) on a plain weave fabric. Traditional crewel fabrics are hand-woven and embroidered in India. The design motif for crewel work is typically outlines of flowers, vines, and leaves, in one or many colors. Modern weaving technology and inventive designers create traditional "crewel" looks with weave effects alone, without the use of embroidery.
Crimp Contraction - The Contraction In Length Of A Previously Textured Yarn From The Fully Extended State (i.e., Where The Filaments Are Substantially Straightened), Owing To The Formation Of Crimp In Individual Filament Under Specified Conditions Of Crimp Development. It Is Expressed As A Percentage Of The Extended Length.
Crimp Frequency - The Number Of Full Waves Or Crimps In A Length Of Fiber Divided By The Straightened Length.
Crimp Retraction - Crimp Contraction.
Crimp Stability - The Ability Of A Textured Yarn To Resist The Reduction Of Its Crimp By Mechanical And/or Thermal Stress., Note: Crimp Stability Is Normally Expressed As The Ratio Of Values Of Crimp Retraction Measured Before And After A Specified Mechanical And/or Thermal Treatment Of The Yarn.
Crimp, Latent - A Crimp That Is Potentially Present In Specially Prepared Fibers Or Filaments And That Can Be Developed By A Specific Treatment Such As Thermal Relaxation Or Tensioning And Subsequent Relaxation.
Crimped Length - The Distance Between The Ends Of A Fiber When Substantially Freed From External Restraint, Measured With Respect To Its General Axis Of Orientation.
Crimped Yarn - A Continuous-filament Yarn That Has Been Processed To Introduce Durable Crimps, Coils, Loops Or Other Fine Distortions Along The Lengths Of The Filaments., Note 1: The Main Texturing Procedures Which Are Usually Applied To Continuous-filament Yarns Made From Or Containing Thermoplastic Fibers, Are:, (a) The Yarn Is Highly Twisted, Heat-set And Untwisted Either As A Process Of Three Separate Stages (now Obsolescent) Or As A Continuous Process (false-twist Texturing). In An Infrequently Used Alternative Method, Two Yarns Are Continuously Folded Together, Heat-set, Then Separated By Unfolding;, (b) The Yarn Is Injected Into A Heated Stuffer Box Either By Feed Rollers Or Through A Plasticizing Jet Of Hot Fluid (invariably Air Or Steam). The Jet Process Is Sometimes Known As Jet Texturing, Hot-air Jet Texturing, Or Steam-jet Texturing;, (c) The Yarn Is Plasticized By Passage Through A Jet Of Hot Fluid And Is Impacted On To A Cooling Surface (impact Texturing);, (d) The Heated Yarn Is Passed Over A Knife-edge (edge Crimping), (now Obsolete);, (e) The Heated Yarn Is Passed Between A Pair Of Gear Wheels Or Through Some Similar Device (gear Crimping);, (f) The Yarn Is Knitted Into A Fabric That Is Heat-set And Then Unravelled (knit-deknit Texturing);, (g) The Yarn Is Over-fed Through A Turbulent Air Stream (air-texturing, Air-jet Texturing), So That Entangled Loops Are Formed In The Filaments;, (h) The Yarn Is Composed Of Bicomponent Fibers And Is Subjected To A Hot And/or Wet Process Whereby Differential Shrinkage Occurs., Note 2: Procedures (a) And (d) In Note I Above Gives Yarns Of A Generally High-stretch Character. This Is Frequently Reduced By Re-heating The Yarn In A State Where It Is Only Partly Relaxed From The Fully Extended Condition, Thus Producing A Stabilized Yarn With The Bulkiness Little Reduced But With A Much Reduced Retractive Power., Note 3: The Procedure (g) May Also Be Applied To Fibers Which Are Not Thermoplastic.
Crinkled - An Uneven, Wrinkle, Or Puckered Effect On The Fabric Surface Which Can Be Created By A Variety Of Mechanical Or Chemical Finishes, Or Through The Use Of High Twist Yarns.
Crinoline - A lightweight, plain weave, stiffened fabric with a low yarn count (few yarns to the inch in each direction).
Crisp - Describes Fabrics With A Smooth, Clean Surface, Good Body, And A Relatively Firm Hand Which May Make Noise When Rustled.
Critical Application Value (cav) - In A Low Add-on Easy-care Finishing System, The Amount Of Finishing Liquor Which Must Be Applied To A Given Fabric To Avoid A Non-uniform Distribution Of Cross-linking After Drying And Curing.
Crochet Lace - Lace Handmade With A Crochet Hook Usually Medallion Patterns On A Mesh Ground.
Crocheted - Loose, open knit made by looping thread with a hooked needle. Used for light, summer sweaters.
Crocking - The rubbing-off of dye from a fabric. Crocking can be the result of lack of penetration of the dyeing agent, the use of incorrect dyes or dyeing procedures, or the lack of proper washing procedures and finishing treatments after the dyeing process.
Crockmeter - An Apparatus For Evaluating The Color Fastness To Rubbing Of Dyed Or Printed Textiles.
Cross Cut - Refers To A Corduroy Fabric Which Has The Pile Cut In A Weftwise Direction, Forming Squares Or Rectangles On The Surface.
Cross Dyed - A Method Of Coloring Fabric Made With Strategically Placed Yarns Of 2 Or More Different Fibers. A Pre-planned Effect Becomes Visible By Dyeing The Fabric In Different Dye Baths, One For Each Of The Types Of Yarn. For Example A Predominately Rayon Fabric May Have A Polyester Yarn Woven Into It In A Stripe Pattern Then Dyed In A Bath To Which Only The Rayon Is Sensitive. The Polyester Stripe Will Be Made To Appear Since It Remains Undyed. The Stripe May Then Be Colored By Dyeing It Again In A Bath Of A Different Color To Which Only The Polyester Is Sensitive. Heather Effects May Be Achieved By Mixing More Than One Fiber In A Single Yarn Then Cross Dyeing.
Cross Dyed & Overprinted - A Cross Dyed Fabric Which Has Also Had A Design Printed On It.
Cross Dyeing - The Dyeing Of One Component Of A Mixture Of Fibers Of Which At Least One Is Already Colored.
Cross Lapping / Cross Laying - The Production Of A Nonwoven Web Or Batt From A Fiber Web By Traversing It To And Fro Across A Lattice Moving At Right Angles To The Direction Of Traverse.
Crossbred - A Term Applied Loosely To Wool, Tops, Yarns Or Fabrics Produced From Wools Of Medium Quality.
Cross-linking - The Creation Of Chemical Bonds Between Polymer Molecules E.g., In A Fiber Or In A Pigment Binder This Generally Restricts Swelling And Alters Elastic Recovery.
Cross-wound Package - A Package Characterized By The Large Crossing Angle Of The Helixes Of Sliver Or Yarn.
Crotch Seam - The short seam from the back of the pants fly to the inseam.
Crumbs - A Term Used To Describe Shredded Alkali-cellulose.
Crush Cutting - A Process In Converting In Which The Filaments Of The Tow Are Severed By Crushing Between An Anvil Roller And A Cutting Roller With Raised 'blades' Helically Disposed Around Its Surface.
Crushed - A Finish That Creates A Planned Irregular Disturbance On The Surface Of The Fabric, Usually By Mechanical Means.
Crystallinity - Three-dimensional Order In The Arrangement Of Atoms And Molecules Within A Chemical Phase. Most Chemical Compounds Of Low Molecular Weight May Be Obtained In A State Of Virtually Complete Three-dimensional Order. When Polymers Crystallize, In General The Product Consists Of Regions Of High Order (crystallites), Regions Of Low Order (amorphous Regions), And Regions Of Intermediate Order. Different Methods Of Measuring The Degree Of Crystallinity (e.g., Density, Wide-angle X-ray Scattering, Enthalpy Measurement) Emphasize Different Aspects And Therefore Lead To Quantitatively Different Values. In Recent Years The Simple Concept Of Crystalline And Amorphous Regions Has Been Questioned And Terms Such As Para-crystalline Have Been Introduced.
Csp - Count-strength Product.
Cuff (lined) - A cuff with interlining placed between the two pieces of body fabric.
Cuff (one-piece) - A two-ply cuff formed by folding over a single piece of fabric, usually with a lining in between.
Cuff (topstitched) - A cuff with an added row of stitching along the folded edges.
Cuff (two-piece) - A cuff in which two identical pieces of fabric, usually with a lining in between, are joined by a seam along the edge, then turned and sometimes topstitched near the folded edges.
Culottes - French Word For Rather Tight Breeches.
Cupra - The Term Used Originally, And Still In The U. S. A., To Describe Fibers Of Regenerated Cellulose Obtained By The Cuprammonium Process. The Iso Preferred Classification For These Fibers Is Cupro.
Cuprammonium - A process of producing a type of regenerated rayon fiber. In this process, the wood pulp or cotton liners are dissolved in an ammoniac copper oxide solution. Bemberg rayon is a type of Cuprammonium rayon.
Cuprammonium Rayon - A Term Used To Describe Fibers Of Regenerated Cellulose Obtained By The Cuprammonium Process.
Cupro - A Term Used To Describe Fibers Of Regenerated Cellulose Obtained By The Cuprammonium Process.
Curing - A baking process with the use of resin finishes, applying heat under carefully controlled conditions to a fabric or the garment, which cause a reaction in the finishing agents and make them work. Crease-retention, water repellency, wrinkle resistance, and durable press are examples of finishes that are cured.
Cut Velvet - Jacquard Fabric Consisting Of A Velvet Design On A Plain Ground. Also Called Beaded Velvet. Used In Evening Wear And Home Furnishings.
Cuticle - The Surface Layer Of Animal Hair Fibers, Consisting Of Flat Overlapping Scales.
Cut-on-cross - Fabric that is cut so that the warp runs horizontally across the garment piece.
Cut-on-fold - Fabric that is doubled, then cut.